# BS 5400-2:2006 - A British Standard for Bridge Loading (Withdrawn)

## - How to access it for free online? - What are the main features and benefits of this standard? H2: BS 5400 Part 2 2006: Specification for Loads - What are the types of loads that this standard covers? - How are the loads classified and distributed? - What are the load factors and combinations? H3: Highway Loads - What are the design vehicles and load models? - How to calculate the effects of braking, acceleration, centrifugal force, wind, etc.? - How to account for dynamic effects and impact factors? H3: Railway Loads - What are the design trains and load models? - How to calculate the effects of traction, braking, centrifugal force, wind, etc.? - How to account for dynamic effects and impact factors? H3: Pedestrian and Cycle Loads - What are the design loads and load models? - How to calculate the effects of crowd loading, wind, etc.? - How to account for dynamic effects and impact factors? H3: Other Loads - What are the design loads for temperature, shrinkage, creep, settlement, etc.? - How to calculate the effects of these loads on bridges and associated structures? - How to account for differential movements and compatibility? H2: Comparison with Other Standards - How does BS 5400 Part 2 2006 compare with other standards such as Eurocodes, AASHTO, etc.? - What are the similarities and differences between them? - What are the advantages and disadvantages of each standard? H2: Conclusion - Summarize the main points of the article. - Emphasize the importance and benefits of BS 5400 Part 2 2006. - Provide some recommendations and tips for using this standard. H2: FAQs - Answer some common questions about BS 5400 Part 2 2006. Article with HTML formatting: BS 5400 Part 2 2006 PDF Free: What You Need to Know

If you are involved in the design of highway and railway bridges and associated structures, you may have heard of BS 5400 Part 2 2006. This is a British standard that specifies the loading to be used for these structures. It is a crucial document that helps engineers ensure the safety and durability of bridges.

## bs 5400 part 2 2006 pdf free

But what exactly is BS 5400 Part 2 2006 and why is it important? How can you access it for free online? What are the main features and benefits of this standard? In this article, we will answer these questions and more. We will also compare this standard with other standards such as Eurocodes, AASHTO, etc. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of BS 5400 Part 2 2006 and how to use it effectively.

## BS 5400 Part 2 2006: Specification for Loads

BS 5400 Part 2 2006 is a British standard that specifies the loading to be used for the design of highway and railway bridges and associated structures. It covers steel, concrete and composite bridges. It also applies to footbridges, sign gantries, parapets, retaining walls, etc.

This standard classifies and distributes the loads according to their nature, magnitude and frequency. It also provides load factors and combinations to account for uncertainties and variations in loading. The main types of loads that this standard covers are:

Highway loads

Railway loads

Pedestrian and cycle loads

Other loads

Let's take a closer look at each of these load types and how they are specified in BS 5400 Part 2 2006.

### Highway Loads

Highway loads are the loads imposed by road vehicles on bridges and associated structures. They include the effects of vehicle weight, braking, acceleration, centrifugal force, wind, etc. They also include the effects of dynamic loading and impact factors.

BS 5400 Part 2 2006 defines the design vehicles and load models for highway loads. The design vehicles are based on the maximum permissible weights and dimensions of road vehicles in the UK. The load models are based on the statistical distribution of vehicle weights and axle spacings. The standard provides tables and diagrams for the design vehicles and load models.

The standard also provides formulas and methods for calculating the effects of highway loads on bridges and associated structures. These include the effects of:

Braking and acceleration

Centrifugal force

Wind

Lane loading

Dynamic effects

Impact factors

The standard also provides guidance on how to apply the load factors and combinations for highway loads. The load factors are based on the probability and duration of loading. The load combinations are based on the simultaneous occurrence of loading.

### Railway Loads

Railway loads are the loads imposed by trains on bridges and associated structures. They include the effects of train weight, traction, braking, centrifugal force, wind, etc. They also include the effects of dynamic loading and impact factors.

BS 5400 Part 2 2006 defines the design trains and load models for railway loads. The design trains are based on the maximum permissible weights and speeds of trains in the UK. The load models are based on the statistical distribution of train weights and axle spacings. The standard provides tables and diagrams for the design trains and load models.

The standard also provides formulas and methods for calculating the effects of railway loads on bridges and associated structures. These include the effects of:

Traction and braking

Centrifugal force

Wind

Track irregularities

Dynamic effects

Impact factors

The standard also provides guidance on how to apply the load factors and combinations for railway loads. The load factors are based on the probability and duration of loading. The load combinations are based on the simultaneous occurrence of loading.

### Pedestrian and Cycle Loads

Pedestrian and cycle loads are the loads imposed by pedestrians and cyclists on bridges and associated structures. They include the effects of crowd loading, wind, etc. They also include the effects of dynamic loading and impact factors.

BS 5400 Part 2 2006 defines the design loads and load models for pedestrian and cycle loads. The design loads are based on the maximum permissible densities and weights of pedestrians and cyclists in the UK. The load models are based on the statistical distribution of pedestrian and cycle flows. The standard provides tables and diagrams for the design loads and load models.

The standard also provides formulas and methods for calculating the effects of pedestrian and cycle loads on bridges and associated structures. These include the effects of:

Crowd loading

Wind

Vibration

Dynamic effects

Impact factors

The standard also provides guidance on how to apply the load factors and combinations for pedestrian and cycle loads. The load factors are based on the probability and duration of loading. The load combinations are based on the simultaneous occurrence of loading.

### Other Loads

Other loads are the loads imposed by environmental or structural actions on bridges and associated structures. They include the effects of temperature, shrinkage, creep, settlement, etc. They also include the effects of differential movements and compatibility.

BS 5400 Part 2 2006 defines the design loads for other loads. The design loads are based on the maximum expected values or ranges of values of these actions in the UK. The standard provides tables and diagrams for the design loads.

The standard also provides formulas and methods for calculating the effects of other loads on bridges and associated structures. These include the effects of:

Shrinkage and creep

Settlement and subsidence

Earth pressure and water pressure

Seismic action

Collision and accidental loads

The standard also provides guidance on how to apply the load factors and combinations for other loads. The load factors are based on the probability and duration of loading. The load combinations are based on the simultaneous occurrence of loading.

## Comparison with Other Standards

BS 5400 Part 2 2006 is not the only standard that specifies the loading for bridges and associated structures. There are other standards that are used in different countries or regions, such as Eurocodes, AASHTO, etc. How does BS 5400 Part 2 2006 compare with these standards? What are the similarities and differences between them? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each standard?

In this section, we will briefly compare BS 5400 Part 2 2006 with some of the most widely used standards for bridge loading. We will focus on the following aspects:

The scope and applicability of the standard

The types and models of loads

The methods and formulas for calculating the effects of loads

The load factors and combinations

We will not go into too much detail, as each standard has its own complexity and nuances. We will only provide a general overview and some examples to illustrate the main points.

### Eurocodes

Eurocodes are a set of European standards that cover the design of buildings and civil engineering works. They include a series of codes that deal with different aspects of structural design, such as materials, actions, analysis, etc. For bridge loading, the relevant codes are:

EN 1990: Basis of structural design

EN 1991: Actions on structures

EN 1991-1-7: Accidental actions due to impact and explosions

EN 1991-2: Traffic loads on bridges

Eurocodes have a wider scope and applicability than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They cover not only highway and railway bridges, but also pedestrian bridges, cable-stayed bridges, arch bridges, etc. They also cover not only steel, concrete and composite bridges, but also timber bridges, masonry bridges, etc.

Eurocodes have similar types and models of loads as BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They also cover highway loads, railway loads, pedestrian and cycle loads, and other loads. However, they have some differences in the definitions and values of these loads. For example:

Eurocodes use different design vehicles and load models for highway loads. They use a series of load models (LM) that represent different types of vehicles (such as cars, trucks, buses, etc.) with different axle configurations and weights. They also use a tandem system (TS) that represents a pair of closely spaced axles with a high weight.

Eurocodes use different design trains and load models for railway loads. They use a series of load models (LM) that represent different types of trains (such as passenger trains, freight trains, high-speed trains, etc.) with different axle configurations and weights. They also use a special load model (SLM) that represents an exceptional train with a very high weight.

Eurocodes use different design loads and load models for pedestrian and cycle loads. They use a uniform distributed load (UDL) that represents the average weight per unit area of pedestrians or cyclists. They also use a concentrated load (CL) that represents an individual pedestrian or cyclist with a high weight.

Eurocodes have similar methods and formulas for calculating the effects of loads as BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They also account for the effects of braking, acceleration, centrifugal force, wind, dynamic effects, impact factors, etc. However, they have some differences in the coefficients and parameters used in these calculations. For example:

Eurocodes use different braking coefficients for highway loads. They use a braking coefficient (kb) that depends on the type of vehicle (such as car or truck), the speed of vehicle (such as low or high), and the type of road (such as flat or curved).

Eurocodes use different centrifugal coefficients for railway loads. They use a centrifugal coefficient (kc) that depends on the type of train (such as passenger or freight), the speed of train (such as low or high), and the radius of curvature (such as small or large).

Eurocodes use different dynamic coefficients for pedestrian and cycle loads. They use a dynamic coefficient (kd) that depends on the natural frequency of the structure, the damping ratio of the structure, and the modal mass of the structure.

Eurocodes have similar load factors and combinations as BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They also use load factors that depend on the probability and duration of loading, and load combinations that depend on the simultaneous occurrence of loading. However, they have some differences in the values and expressions of these factors and combinations. For example:

Eurocodes use different load factors for highway loads. They use a partial factor (Î³F) that depends on the type of load model (such as LM or TS), the type of action (such as permanent or variable), and the design situation (such as ultimate or serviceability).

Eurocodes use different load factors for railway loads. They use a partial factor (Î³F) that depends on the type of load model (such as LM or SLM), the type of action (such as permanent or variable), and the design situation (such as ultimate or serviceability).

Eurocodes use different load factors for pedestrian and cycle loads. They use a partial factor (Î³F) that depends on the type of load model (such as UDL or CL), the type of action (such as permanent or variable), and the design situation (such as ultimate or serviceability).

Some advantages of Eurocodes are:

They are more comprehensive and versatile than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They cover more types and aspects of bridges and associated structures.

They are more harmonized and consistent than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They follow a common framework and terminology for structural design.

They are more updated and modern than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They reflect the latest research and development in bridge engineering.

Some disadvantages of Eurocodes are:

They are more complex and detailed than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They require more calculations and data for bridge design.

They are more variable and uncertain than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They allow for more choices and options for bridge design.

They are more expensive and difficult to access than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They require more resources and subscriptions for bridge design.

### AASHTO

AASHTO is an acronym for American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. It is an organization that represents the transportation departments of all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in the United States. It publishes a series of standards and guides for transportation engineering, such as roads, bridges, tunnels, etc. For bridge loading, the relevant standard is:

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is an American standard that specifies the loading for highway bridges in the United States. It covers steel, concrete, composite, prestressed, segmental, movable, etc. bridges. It also applies to footbridges, sign structures, retaining walls, etc.

This standard has a similar scope and applicability as BS 5400 Part 2 2006. It covers highway bridges and associated structures. However, it does not cover railway bridges, which are covered by another standard called AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering.

This standard has similar types and models of loads as BS 5400 Part 2 2006. It also covers highway loads, pedestrian and cycle loads, and other loads. However, it has some differences in the definitions and values of these loads. For example:

This standard uses different design vehicles and load models for highway loads. It uses a series of load models (LM) that represent different types of vehicles (such as cars, trucks, buses, etc.) with different axle configurations and weights. It also uses a special load model (SLM) that represents an exceptional vehicle with a very high weight.

It uses a uniform distributed load (UDL) that represents the average weight per unit area of pedestrians or cyclists. It also uses a concentrated load (CL) that represents an individual pedestrian or cyclist with a high weight.

This standard has similar methods and formulas for calculating the effects of loads as BS 5400 Part 2 2006. It also accounts for the effects of braking, acceleration, centrifugal force, wind, dynamic effects, impact factors, etc. However, it has some differences in the coefficients and parameters used in these calculations. For example:

This standard uses different braking coefficients for highway loads. It uses a braking coefficient (kb) that depends on the type of vehicle (such as car or truck), the speed of vehicle (such as low or high), and the grade of road (such as flat or sloped).

This standard uses different centrifugal coefficients for highway loads. It uses a centrifugal coefficient (kc) that depends on the type of vehicle (such as car or truck), the speed of vehicle (such as low or high), and the radius of curvature (such as small or large).

This standard uses different dynamic coefficients for pedestrian and cycle loads. It uses a dynamic coefficient (kd) that depends on the natural frequency of the structure, the damping ratio of the structure, and the modal mass of the structure.

This standard has similar load factors and combinations as BS 5400 Part 2 2006. It also uses load factors that depend on the probability and duration of loading, and load combinations that depend on the simultaneous occurrence of loading. However, it has some differences in the values and expressions of these factors and combinations. For example:

This standard uses different load factors for highway loads. It uses a resistance factor (Ï†) that depends on the type of material (such as steel or concrete), the type of limit state (such as strength or serviceability), and the type of action (such as permanent or variable).

This standard uses different load factors for pedestrian and cycle loads. It uses a resistance factor (Ï†) that depends on the type of material (such as steel or concrete), the type of limit state (such as strength or serviceability), and the type of action (such as permanent or variable).

This standard uses different load combinations for highway loads. It uses a load and resistance factor design (LRFD) approach that combines different types of actions (such as dead, live, wind, etc.) with different factors (such as Ï†, Î³D, Î³L, etc.).

Some advantages of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications are:

They are more specific and tailored than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They cover only highway bridges and associated structures in the United States.

They are more consistent and unified than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They follow a common approach and methodology for structural design.

They are more reliable and robust than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They reflect the best practices and experiences in bridge engineering in the United States.

Some disadvantages of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications are:

They are more limited and restrictive than BS 5400 Part 2 2006. They do not cover ra